Demands for health, performance and welfare in pigs, as well as the desire for consumer protection and reduced antibiotic use, require optimal measures in advance of disease development. This includes, … in principle, the use of genetically more resistant lines and breeding animals, whose existence has been proven for a wide range of pathogen-host interactions. In addition, attempts are being made to identify the gene variants responsible for disease resistance in order to force the selection of suitable populations, also using modern biotechnical technics. The present work is intended to provide an overview of the research status achieved in this context and to highlight opportunities and risks for the future.The evaluation of the international literature shows that genetic disease resistance exist in many areas of swine diseases. However, polygenic inheritance, lack of animal models and the influence of environmental factors during evaluation render their implementation in practical breeding programs demanding. This is where modern molecular genetic methods, such as Gene Editing, come into play. Both approaches possess their pros and cons, which are discussed in this paper. The most important infectious diseases in pigs, including general diseases and epizootics, diseases of the respiratory and digestive tract and diseases of the immune system are taken into account.